Janesville Police Chief Dave Moore remembers a time decades ago near the start of his career when there wasn’t any use-of-force training.
“You were just left to do what seemed right for you,” he said. “And if you did something wrong, that’s when you found out about it.”
Today, he said they are “training constantly.”
He added that it goes beyond re-reading the policies. It’s more active, such as role-playing scenarios to practice de-escalation.
Police use-of-force policies and practices are again in the national spotlight after the May 25 death of George Floyd, the black Minneapolis man who died after officer Derek Chauvin knelt on his neck for nearly nine minutes.
That and the protests that erupted across the country after the events in Minneapolis have pushed some local law enforcement agencies to re-examine and in some cases add to their own department’s policies.
“In our post-Minneapolis world, I think every leader of an organization ought to be looking back at their policies and make sure that they are appropriate given the changes in the policing industry,” Moore said.
The Gazette reviewed the use-of-force policies for the police departments in Janesville and Milton, as well as that of the Rock County Sheriff’s Office.
The Beloit Daily News also reported on what is happening in the police departments for the city and town of Beloit.
The Milton Police Department’s use-of-force policy does not have anything explicit on a “duty to intercede,” which is something Police Chief Scott Marquardt wants to change.
Chauvin in Minneapolis was arrested May 29. The three officers who were nearby and did not stop what happened eventually were charged with aiding and abetting murder, but they were not charged until June 3 after days of protests.
Police officials in Rock County spoke out to varying degrees against the police killing of George Floyd in Minnesota, decrying the “crime” and “murderous actions” and calling for an investigation.
While Marquardt said the duty has been “culturally” part of the department, he said adding the specific language will make what the organization believes “more apparent” rather than just implied.
Janesville police and the Rock County Sheriff’s Office have listed in their policies a duty for officers to intercede when they see instances of unreasonable force.
Janesville’s policy on using non-deadly force starts by saying the department, “recognizes and respects the value and special integrity of each human life,” and its officers must balance all human interests in achieving public welfare.
But Moore said he didn’t see a similar message in the policy about using deadly force. Maybe it’s more of a symbolic change, but he wanted to make sure that point was reiterated there in writing.
Janesville’s chief of police also said there has been some concern about shooting into moving vehicles. He said his department “all but eliminated it,” except for a small set of circumstances after discussing the topic about a year ago, but he wants to make sure the language is “acceptable.”
Like how Moore said training is ongoing constantly, Marquardt said use-of-force policy is an area that sees continuous change.
“I emailed our use-of-force policy to somebody yesterday, where I pointed out this is a living document,” he said.
But Rock County Sheriff Troy Knudson struck a different tone. He has been a use-of-force instructor for nearly 30 years, and he said the program has been “very consistent.”
He said there have been “some minor things that we have added to the program.” One change that came to mind within the last 10 years was to improve skills for ground fighting if an incident moves that way, he said.
Knudson said the lack of change was a credit to how the training was set up years ago.
“I think much of what we’ve seen in Minneapolis and around the country is already addressed in our policy,” he said. “I feel strongly that the program is good, our training is good and our methods for holding people accountable is particularly good.”
Local police officials emphasized the importance of de-escalation and using only the minimum amount of force necessary.
Moore said some equipment changes have come in recent years, such as body cameras and Tasers.
But he said he is always telling others in the department that they need to be examining what problems are coming up across the country when it comes to policing.
“Then we need to be leaning forward and taking charge and training ahead of time before something bad happens by us,” he said.
After Eric Garner’s 2014 death in New York by an officer’s chokehold, the phrase “I can’t breathe” became a rallying cry at protests, as has happened following Floyd’s death.
Floyd’s death also has brought renewed questions about police using such a tactic.
“I have been here for more than 30 years, and chokeholds and neck restraint has never been a part of our program here,” Knudson said of the sheriff’s office.
He said it’s possible circumstances in a given incident would require an officer to use a chokehold if there is a perceived need for deadly force. But that use of force would be evaluated as an untrained tactic that was either justified or unjustified, he added.
Local leaders and other residents reflect on what it might take to fix the racism that has held the nation--and Rock County--from being all it could be.
Moore said similarly.
The word “choke” might not be in Janesville’s use-of-force policy, but Moore said the department’s training has for more than three decades said chokeholds and pressure to the neck “are not acceptable.”
“It’s so ingrained with our officers,” he said. “Policy can never capture everything that we train. So it’s always important that the policy works cooperatively with the training.”
The Milton Police Department has an entry about chokeholds in its use-of-force policy that says, “Chokeholds in and of themselves are not permitted unless being used in a deadly force situation.”
“That’s the explicitness that I do want to take a look at,” Marquardt said. “Because the language and the semantics (do) matter and make sure that it’s not squishy—and to say right in there, ‘prohibited unless,’ I think helps us do that.”
Police officials emphasized that all use-of-force incidents are reported and reviewed, which they said helps hold officers accountable.
Departments also release their figures. Some recent data show:
Of note, these departments are not all the same size, which affects the raw figures.
When officers kill someone, outside agencies are brought in to investigate. For other less serious instances of force, local use-of-force policies call for reviews of each instance to make sure the officers were justified.
For example, Knudson said the first-line supervisor, lead use-of-force instructor and the chief deputy (or another administrator) review every incident. Sometimes, more will look at them.
“So, these are getting reviewed over and over and over,” Knudson said. “And it’s getting reviewed from different perspectives.”
Beloit Police Chief David Zibolski said “in no circumstance would the compression of someone’s neck be an appropriate use of force” in attempting to take someone into custody in Beloit.
In a May 29 letter to the community, Zibolski denounced the actions of the Minneapolis police officers during George Floyd’s arrest and death, calling the incident “horrifying, heartbreaking and deeply disturbing.”
Use-of-force data for Beloit shows officers applied force to arrest people in 117 of the department’s 3,555 arrests in 2019, with arrests accounting for 6.5% of the 54,479 calls for service last year.
Deadly force was used by Beloit police in the Dec. 10 shooting death of Montay S. Penning, 23, of Janesville, after a foot chase in the 1800 block of Harrison Avenue. Evidence presented by Rock County District Attorney David O’Leary from a state independent investigation appeared to show Penning was armed during the incident and had pointed the weapon at officers.
Because it was ruled the three officers were justified in Penning’s death, no use-of-force policy changes were made after the incident. Zibolski said no policy breaches were found as part of an internal department review of the incident that followed the state investigation.
Based on 2019 use-of-force data, more than 40% of people subjected to use of force were believed to be under the influence of drugs, alcohol or suffering from a mental health episode.
In the wake of Floyd’s death, Zibolski met with clergy and community members to begin planning future “Conversations With The Community” outreach events, and peaceful protests in Beloit last week urged the department to consider making policy changes related to body cameras.
No dates have been announced for the expected outreach events.
Town of Beloit Police Chief Ron Northrop said township officers are “not trained to use chokeholds or put any pressure on the neck or spine area of a person in a prone position or at any time during an arrest situation.”
“These tactics aren’t trained and are not accepted,” Northrop added.
The department’s use-of-force policy outlines a series of “unarmed hand strikes, foot strikes, forearm strikes, knee strikes, or body stuns” that can be used by officers in making an arrest.
Northrop said officers are trained to use Defense and Arrest Tactics, a system of communication skills coupled with physical alternatives to gain compliance.
“While the use of reasonable physical force may be necessary in situations which cannot be otherwise controlled, force may not be resorted to unless other reasonable alternatives have been exhausted or would clearly be ineffective under the particular circumstances.”
If found to be using excessive force, officers are subject to disciplinary action, along with potential criminal and civil liability.
Austin Montgomery of The Beloit Daily News contributed to this report.
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Mieke Miller picked a sentimental spot to be married: by the milk house where family names are inscribed in cement.
On May 7, she and Iain McLoughlin exchanged vows on the family farm near Clinton, with only a handful of people present.
Their marriage brought tears to the eyes of many who could not attend in person because of the pandemic and who watched online.
But their union also prompted amazement.
“It’s beyond my wildest dreams,” Mieke’s mother, Linda Larsen Miller, said.
She smiled in her heart all day because she knew their unique love story started long before Mieke and Iain were born.
In 1975, Linda was a farm girl in the town of Bradford who began exchanging letters with Caroline Phillips McLoughlin, a seaside girl in Portsmouth, England.
At the time, the 14-year-olds were just doing something fun.
“I don’t think I had any expectations when we started out,” Caroline recalled. “My friends had pen pals, and I wanted to be part of it.”
But their letters soon became more than handwritten messages across the ocean.
They met for the first time in December 1981, when Linda stopped for a visit on her way home from studying in Germany.
Linda visited Caroline again in July 1984 to attend her wedding.
“I guess you could say we clicked,” Caroline said.
In fact, when Caroline married her Scottish husband, Joe McLoughlin, he surprised her with a honeymoon in Wisconsin.
Joe secretly wrote to Linda to make plans to spend their honeymoon on the Larsen dairy farm.
Joe and Caroline visited Linda and her parents, Bob and Marilyn Larsen, and Linda’s future husband, Rick Miller.
“We canoed, went to a water park and ate sweet corn, all experiences that are unique to Wisconsin,” Linda said. “The four of us became great friends.”
Linda and Rick married in 1985, and Caroline and Joe visited them in the summer of 1988. The foursome explored the Midwest together.
Their travels ended when the couples began having children, but their letters and photos did not.
Iain was born in 1990, and Mieke was born in 1995.
Caroline recalled times over the years when life got busy or difficult, and the letters slowed.
“Caroline is the one who kept us going,” Linda said. “She was persistent. She waited patiently until she heard back from me again.”
They stayed in contact.
“I guess the motivation is friendship,” Caroline said. “We got together by chance, but we made a connection I value.”
In February 2013, Rick died of cancer, and Linda’s life changed dramatically. The next year, she retired early after 31 years of teaching German when the Janesville School District ended the German program.
In spring 2014 as a way of coping with all the loss in her life, Linda took a mother-daughter trip with Mieke to visit Europe, including the McLoughlins in Scotland.
On July 4, 2014, Mieke and Iain met for the first time.
“It was immediately clear that my Mieke and Caroline’s Iain were attracted to one another,” Linda said.
Mieke recalls sparks flying on their first date, and, when it came time to leave Scotland, “I knew in my gut that there was no way this was the end for me and Iain,” Mieke said.
“Unbeknownst to us, our mothers had noticed us flirting very early on,” Iain said.
After a month of long-distance communicating, they decided to make an attempt at a formal relationship.
Since July 2014, Iain has flown to see Mieke and stayed at Linda’s Janesville home eight times.
In between Iain’s visits to Wisconsin, Mieke flew to Scotland to spend time with Iain. She studied abroad a semester and also completed a master’s degree at the University of Edinburgh.
Meanwhile, Linda made trips to Scotland and brought along friends, her mother and siblings and their families to visit the McLoughlins.
“I have been able to share this wonderful family and their wonderful culture,” Linda said. “Life is short. You have to love and embrace all the people who are important in your life.”
When their children began dating, Linda and Caroline talked about the possibility of them breaking up.
“We decided that we cannot let whatever happened with our children affect our friendship that has grown all these years,” Linda said.
Iain proposed to Mieke at Rotary Gardens in December 2018 and began the long process of getting a visa, which he received in January.
The couple planned to marry in Door County in late May.
Then a pandemic changed everything.
On March 16, Iain arrived in the United States only hours before the border to the United Kingdom closed because of the coronavirus, and he went into quarantine.
The couple decided to watch the weather for a day that would be good for an outdoor wedding at the Larsen farm.
When the special day arrived, retired judge Al Bates, a friend of both families, presided under sunny skies. Many family members watched via Zoom.
For Caroline, it was heartbreaking not to be there.
She called Linda a “dearly loved friend.”
“My son has fallen in love with and married her daughter,” Caroline said. “This is amazing, but it means he has moved thousands of miles away.”
She is delighted her son found love, but the distance separating her from Iain is painful.
“What makes it tolerable for me is that I know Linda loves him, and he loves her,” Caroline said. “I can’t think of anyone else I would rather have as his mother-in-law. I’m his ‘Mum,’ but she is his ‘Mom,’ and for that I am and always will be grateful.”
Anna Marie Lux is a human interest columnist for The Gazette. Call her with ideas or comments at 608-755-8264 or email amarielux@gazette xtra.com.